Jamun is a tropical fruit, commonly known as Java Plum or Black Plum. It is produced on a large scale for obtaining fruit and timber. Its fruit is bluish-black in colour and has a tempting tangy-sweet taste. The botanical name of Jamun is Syzygium cumini, and it comes from the Myrtaceae family. Moreover, Jamun has numerous health benefits if it is consumed regularly. Such as it can purify the blood, balances sugar level, improves digestion, helps in treating kidney stones and many more.
Jamun Producing States
India holds the second position in the cultivation of Jamun. Moreover, the major Jamun-producing states are Tamil Nadu, Assam, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and others.
Common Names Of Jamun In India
The English name of Jamun is Indian blackberry, and it is called Jambu in Gujarati, Naga Pazham in Tamil, Naval Pazham in Malayalam, Jambhul in Marathi and Jamun or Jamoon in Hindi.
Popular varieties of Jamun
There is no particular variety of Jamun, but the most cultivated Jamun is Raj or Raja Jamun. This variety has small seeds with adequate pulp, and it doesn’t have much citric flavour due to its sweetness. It is obtained in June-July. Moreover, another Jamun variety, found specifically in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, does not contain seeds. Apart from these, a late-ripening Jamun is also grown, with bigger seeds and maturing in August.
Now, look at the complete process of Jamun Farming.
Climatic Conditions For Jamun
Jamun plants can tolerate almost every weather condition, and the preferred climatic condition for its proper growth is tropical or subtropical climates. The plants require hot and dry weather for fruit setting and flowering. Moreover, adequate rainfall is needed for the development of the fruit. Although it is a hardy plant, extreme cold conditions can damage young Jamun.
Jamun thrives best in well-drained and loamy soil, as excessive water can damage the plants and reduce the quality of the yield. The soil pH range for Jamun should lie between 6.5 to 7.5, and saline conditions must be avoided to provide better plant development. Also, the soil should contain enough moisture for the good growth of the fruit.
Jamun needs well-tilth land, and thorough ploughing for a good quality yield and farmers use various farm equipment to fulfil this requirement, such as a powerful and efficient tractor plough. Although, some points should be kept in mind before using a plough. The plough price should be economical for the Indian farmer and provide fuel-efficient work. The next step in land preparation is digging the holes and filling them with farmyard manure to provide nutrition to the soil. it requires well-prepared land. To bring soil to a good level, plough land once. Then pits are dug and are filled with Farm Yard Manure in the ratio of 3:1. Transplantation of seedlings is done on raised beds
The common propagation methods for Jamun are seed propagation and vegetative propagation. In seed propagation, the seeds are sown in the soil to obtain young plants. Whereas in vegetative propagation, a new plant is obtained from a matured plant by cutting off a part of that plant. Although both methods are famous, vegetative propagation is preferred as fruits are received late with the seed propagation method.
Jamun is planted in two seasons; February-March and July-August. It should ensure that there are no unwanted plants in the field. The size of the pits should be 1 x 1 x 1m, and the spacing should be 8 m for budded plants and 10 m per seedling. This process should take place before the monsoon, and the pits are provided with farmyard manure and a mixture of topsoil. This planting method can give up to 120 to 165 plants per hectare.
Fertiliser And Weed Control
The Jamun plants require compost or manure before fruit-bearing, and its quantity should be 30 kg per plant in one year. In contrast, 70 kg of manure is given to a single bearing plant in one year. Moreover, weed control is done at the time of land preparation with the help of an effective rotavator. With the help of low rotavator prices, farmers can easily fulfil weeding tasks.
Jamun needs about 12 irrigations in one year, i.e. 1 irrigation per month when the plants are young. However, when the trees are matured, they require irrigation only twice a year which is essential for fruit ripening. Sometimes, irrigation is provided when there is a need to provide moisture to the soil in hot and dry conditions.
Diseases and Pests
Jamun requires care and attention for its survival as many factors are responsible for its eradication. Some factors include pests like the leaf-eating caterpillar and white fly along with various birds and squirrels.
Jamun is also prone to diseases, such as Anthracnose, which causes fruit rots and leaf spots. Therefore, we need to provide good quality chemicals and give proper affection to Jamun plants.
Pruning And Training Jamun
The effect of pruning has a significant role in the development of fruits. Hence, it is crucial to prune Jamun. It is required to sustain a suitable canopy for harvesting the fruits. Then allow 4 branches to the grove in four directions up to 2 to 3 feet. Make 4 Branches into 8 branches keeping in mind that light and air should pass through all areas of the tree. This process initiates when the trees reach a height of 2.5 to 3.5 metres, and the weak fruitless branches are cut off. And the branches which are closer to the trunk are left untouched. Therefore, it will be able to bear good quality fruits.
Jamuns take 4 to 5 months for the fruit to ripen after flowering and are harvested daily after ripening, manually as they are thinly peeled fruits. The harvesting process is done by shaking the tree to obtain fruits on a polythene sheet or climbing the branches for hand plucking to ensure the best yield. The Jamuns are then collected and ready to be sold in the market.
The duration of the cultivation process, from planting to harvesting, is 8 to 9 years, and a good Jamun tree can provide fruits for 50 – 60 years. In this way, Jamuns undergo various processes, and a farmer requires patience in its cultivation.
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